Common complications in the eyes due to diabetes

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According to statistics from the World Diabetes Federation (IDF), in 2019 there were 463 million people suffering from diabetes (diabetes). This is a progressive chronic disease leading to disorders and impaired functions of many organs in the body.

The disease can cause many acute complications, increasing the risk of infection, if the disease lasts long it will affect large blood vessels and small blood vessels. Complications that are easy to see in the heart, blood vessels, kidneys ... are often more noticeable. The silent but dangerous complication is the visual impairment leading to blindness that is easily ignored.

"On average, more than 50% of Asian patients, in Vietnam, 70%, do not meet the treatment target to bring blood glucose (HbA1c) to less than 7%, increasing the risk of complications in the eyes", said Specialist specialist Nguyen Thi Quynh Nga, Head of Ophthalmology Department, Xuyen A General Hospital, said.

Russian doctors pointed out that the damage to the eyes affects vision, caused by diabetes include:

Bệnh võng mạc do đái tháo đường: Võng mạc (đáy mắt) là nơi có các tế bào thần kinh để thực hiện chức năng nhìn của mắt. Diabetic retinopathy is a complication caused by damage to the small blood vessels in the retina. This is the most common cause of vision loss in people with diabetes.

According to Russian doctors, there are many risk factors associated with the progression of diabetic retinopathy, such as duration of the disease, level of hyperglycemia, poor blood sugar control, proteinuria, increased blood pressure, genetics, race, body weight, high cholesterol, pregnant women ...

The ophthalmologist will administer dilated pupils (pupils) and fundus exams to screen for complications for people with diabetes. Depending on the severity of the injury and the stage of the disease, the doctor will make a treatment plan, monitor the complications according to a routine follow-up visit with each patient. Usually, retinal lesions are asymptomatic, so they can be easily ignored without consultation.

Đục thủy tinh thể (cườm khô): Bệnh đái tháo đường làm cho đục thể thủy tinh xuất hiện sớm hơn và tiến triển nhanh hơn so với bình thường.

The symptoms of a cataract are blurred vision, like fog in front of it, or just an unpleasant glare in the sun. The periodic eye exam will help the patient know the level of vision, the cloudy stage of the lens. Since then, plans to follow up or surgery to improve vision loss caused by cataracts. Especially avoid the status of detecting too late, when vision is much reduced or blind, or when there are additional complications (retinopathy, glaucoma ...), which limit the effectiveness after treatment.

Glocom tân mạch (cườm nước): Bệnh cườm nước do tiểu đường sẽ gây tổn thương nghiêm trọng đến mắt, nếu chẩn đoán muộn hoặc quản lý kém có thể gây mù không hồi phục.

People with diabetes have a 40% higher risk of developing glaucoma than normal people. The longer the illness is, the higher the risk of complications. Treatment success rates of neovascular glaucoma are low, and therefore prophylaxis is best. Therefore, screening for early diagnosis, planning of follow-up and early treatment is required.

Diabetic patients follow closely with their eyes, because they are at a much higher risk of blindness compared to people of the same age who do not have the disease. Early detection and treatment can reduce the risk of blindness by 95%, noted Russian doctors.

Letter Anh

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